Amino Acids are one of essential acids our body requires in order survive. Β-alanine supplementation may also be an effective training aid in the off-season period ( 50 ). Hoffman et al. ( 50 ) compared the combination of β-alanine and creatine with creatine alone during a 10-week off-season conditioning program in collegiate football players.
The body of scientific data available concerning highly trained athletes performing single competition-like exercise tasks indicates that this type of population receives modest but potentially worthwhile performance benefits from β-alanine supplementation.
For example, in one of the first published studies on beta-alanine and human athletic performance, subjects received either a placebo, 20 g per day of creatine monohydrate , 800 mg of beta-alanine four times per day, or the same dose of beta-alanine plus 20 g of creatine monohydrate.
Β-alanine supplementation did not produce a significant ergogenic effect in these sport-specific trials ( 4,12,30,48,54 ). Baguet et al. ( 4 ) what is beta alanine reported a 2.7-second improvement in 2,000-m rowing ergometer performance in elite Belgian rowers after 7 weeks of β-alanine supplementation.
As muscular power production is one of the main determinants of sport performance 21 , 22 , several studies have assessed the effects of caffeine supplements on power output in resistance exercises such as back squat (BS) 23 , 24 , detecting an ergogenic effect on power production.
Other factors that may account for the discrepancies in studies of β-alanine supplementation in highly trained and elite athletes competing in real-world performance is the inherent variability of competitive performance because of the influence of factors such as prior training, cumulative fatigue, diet and pacing strategies employed in time trial, and constant duration protocols, which may mask any potential benefit of β-alanine supplementation on performance ( 45,108 ). Furthermore, the constraints associated with studying a highly trained or elite athletic population poses difficulty because they are a scarce resource, and intervention-based research designs often conflict with their commitments to training and competition.
This includes elucidating the type of sports and environments, where β-alanine supplementation may be most useful and refining the strategy on how it is supplemented, with particular focus on the length of supplementation protocols to allow coaches and athletes to make more informed decisions about employing β-alanine supplementation as a worthwhile ergogenic aid.
AtALDH10A8, an NAD+-dependent aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase EC 184.108.40.206 in A. thaliana was shown to convert 3-aminopropionaldehyde into β-alanine in vitro, and similar enzymes were studied in apple fruit ( Zarei et al., 2015 , 2016 ). However, unlike gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which was specifically accumulated in response to salinity, β-alanine was not, suggesting that β-alanine is accumulated as part of a non-specific rather than a specific stress response ( Zarei et al., 2016 ). A. thaliana has been shown to survive without the ability to make spermine, but spermidine synthesis is essential to survival.
The variability in carnosine loading in response to β-alanine supplementation has led to individuals being categorized into low- and high-responders ( 7 ). Baguet et al. ( 4 ) reported a positive correlation between high baseline muscle carnosine content and the increase in muscle carnosine after β-alanine supplementation in elite rowers.
Furthermore, although not significant, participants in the β-alanine group consistently trained at higher workloads (intensity) and for longer time periods (volume) during the supervised interval training sessions according to the participants training logs.
Hoffman et al. ( 51 ) also observed no significant difference in sprint times or fatigue rates in American football players in an intermittent shuttle running line drill (3 × 35-43 seconds with a 2-minute rest) after 3 weeks of β-alanine supplementation.
It does have some cool aspects like creatin-ol phosphate, which is a creatine like molecule that has some promise to help increase endurance, NAD which is great for energy, citrulline malate for endurance and beta alanine which is performance enhancing.